Comparative in Silico Analysis of Ferric Reduction Oxidase (FRO) Genes Expression Patterns in Response to Abiotic Stresses, Metal and Hormone Applications
Izhar Muhammad, Xiu-Qing Jing, Abdullah Shalmani, Muhammad Ali, Shi Yi, Peng-Fei Gan, Wen-Qiang Li, Wen-Ting Liu, Kun-Ming Chen.
Abstract: The ferric reduction oxidase (FRO) gene family is involved in various biological processes widely found in plants and may play an essential role in metal homeostasis, tolerance and intricate signaling networks in response to a number of abiotic stresses. Our study describes the identification, characterization and evolutionary relationships of FRO genes families. Here, total 50 FRO genes in Plantae and 15 ‘FRO like’ genes in non-Plantae were retrieved from 16 different species. The entire FRO genes have been divided into seven clades according to close similarity in biological and functional behavior. Three conserved domains were common in FRO genes while in two FROs sub genome have an extra NADPH-Ox domain, separating the function of plant FROs. OsFRO1 and OsFRO7 genes were expressed constitutively in rice plant. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsFRO1 was high in flag leaf, and OsFRO7 gene expression was maximum in leaf blade and flag leaf. Both genes showed vigorous expressions level in response to different abiotic and hormones treatments. Moreover, the expression of both genes was also substantial under heavy metal stresses. OsFRO1 gene expression was triggered following 6 h under Zn, Pb, Co and Ni treatments, whereas OsFRO7 gene expression under Fe, Pb and Ni after 12 h, Zn and Cr after 6 h, and Mn and Co after 3 h treatments. These findings suggest the possible involvement of both the genes under abiotic and metal stress and the regulation of phytohormones. Therefore, our current work may provide the foundation for further functional characterization of rice FRO genes family.