Evolutionary History of the Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) Family Based on the Sequenced Genomes of 48 Plants and Identification of Jasmonic Acid-Related GH3 Proteins in Solanum tuberosum
Chao Zhang, Leilei Zhang, Dongdong Wang, Haoli Ma, Bailin Liu, Zheng Shi, Xiaohui Ma, Yue Chen, Qin Chen.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.
Abstract: Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of proteins found in many plant species. These proteins contribute to the biological activity of indolacetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA). They also affect plant growth and developmental processes as well as some types of stress. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plant species, including algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. No GH3 representative protein was found in algae, but we identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and several in angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 proteins are mainly present in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 proteins showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II, but its function was not clear. The structure of the GH3 proteins indicated highly conserved sequences in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA adenylation in relation to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 greatly responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were higher in the potato flowers, and StGH3.11 expression was also higher in the stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function of GH3 proteins related to JA adenylation in S. tuberosum when the plants are developing and under biotic stress.