A Phytophthora capsici RXLR Effector Targets and Inhibits a Plant PPIase to Suppress Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Immunity
Guangjin Fan, Yang Yang, Tingting Li, Wenqin Lu, Yu Du, Xiaoyu Qiang, Qujiang Wen, Weixing Shan.
Abstract: Phytophthora pathogens secrete a large arsenal of effectors that manipulate host processes to create an environment conducive to their colonization. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Phytophthora effectors manipulate host plant cells still remain largely unclear. In this study, we report that PcAvr3a12, a Phytophthora capsici RXLR effector and a member of the Avr3a effector family, suppresses plant immunity by targeting and inhibiting peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase). Overexpression of PcAvr3a12 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P. capsici. FKBP15-2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized protein, was identified as a host target of PcAvr3a12 during early P. capsici infection. Analyses of A. thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant (fkbp15-2), RNAi and overexpression lines consistently showed that FKBP15-2 positively regulates plant immunity in response to Phytophthora infection. FKBP15-2 possesses PPIase activity essential for its contribution to immunity but was directly suppressed by PcAvr3a12. Interestingly, we found that FKBP15-2 is involved in ER stress sensing and is required for ER stress-mediated plant immunity. Taken together, these results suggest that P. capsici deploys an RXLR effector, PcAvr3a12, to facilitate infection by targeting and suppressing a novel ER-localized PPIase, FKBP15-2, which is required for ER stress-mediated plant immunity.