Genome-Wide Analysis of CDPK Family in Foxtail Millet and Determination of SiCDPK24 Functions in Drought Stress
Tai-Fei Yu, Wan-Ying Zhao, Jin-Dong Fu, Yong-Wei Liu, Ming Chen, Yong-Bin Zhou, You-Zhi Ma, Zhao-Shi Xu, Ya-Jun Xi.
Front. Plant Sci.
Abstract: Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) were reported to play important roles in plant resistance to abiotic stress. Foxtail millet cultivation “H138” was used for RNAseq analysis. The data from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of foxtail millet showed that CDPKs were up- or down-regulated by drought to different degrees. In this study, 29 foxtail millet CDPKs were classified into four subgroups. These genes were unevenly distributed on nine foxtail millet chromosomes, and chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 contained the most SiCDPK members. Analysis of putative cis-acting elements showed that most foxtail millet CDPK genes contained the ABRE, LTR, HSE, MYB, MYC, DRE, CGTCA-motif, and TGACG-motif cis-acting elements, which could be activated by abiotic stresses. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that 29 SiCDPK genes experienced different degrees of induction under drought and ABA stresses. SiCDPK24 had the highest expression levels at 6 and 12 h of drought treatment and was chosen for further analysis. SiCDPK24 localized to the cell membrane and the nucleus of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Western blot analysis showed that SiCDPK24 protein had autophosphorylation activity. Overexpression of SiCDPK24 in Arabidopsis enhanced drought resistance and improved the survival rate under drought stress. It also activated the expressions of nine stress-related genes, namely RD29A, RD29B, RD22, KIN1, COR15, COR47, LEA14, CBF3/DREB1A, and DREB2A. These genes are involved in resistance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. These results indicate that foxtail millet CDPK genes play important roles in resisting drought stress.