Comparative Analysis of the PIN Auxin Transporter Gene Family in Different Plant Species: A Focus on Structural and Expression Profiling of PINs in Solanum tuberosum
Chenghui Yang, DongdongWang, Chao Zhang, Nana Kong, Haoli Ma, Qin Chen.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.
Abstract: Plant growth and morphogenesis largely benefit from cell elongation and expansion and are normally regulated by environmental stimuli and endogenous hormones. Auxin, as one of the most significant plant growth regulators, controls various phases of plant growth and development. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family of trans-membrane proteins considered as auxin efflux carriers plays a pivotal role in polar auxin transport and then mediates the growth of different plant tissues. In this study, the phylogenetic relationship and structural compositions of the PIN gene family in 19 plant species covering plant major lineages from algae to angiosperms were identified and analyzed by employing multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 155 PIN genes were identified in these species and found that representative of the PIN gene family in algae came into existence and rapidly expanded in angiosperms (seed plants). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PIN proteins could be divided into 14 distinct clades, and the origin of PIN proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of green algae. The structural analysis revealed that two putative types (canonical and noncanonical PINs) existed among the PIN proteins according to the length and the composition of the hydrophilic domain of the protein. The expression analysis of the PIN genes exhibited inordinate responsiveness to auxin (IAA) and ABA both in shoots and roots of Solanum tuberosum. While the majority of the StPINs were up-regulated in shoot and down-regulated in root by the two hormones. The majority of PIN genes had one or more putative auxin responses and ABA-inducible response elements in their promoter regions, respectively, implying that these phytohormones regulated the expression of StPIN genes. Our study emphasized the origin and expansion of the PIN gene family and aimed at providing useful insights for further structural and functional exploration of the PIN gene family in the future.