Effects of periodically repeated high-temperature exposure on the immediate and subsequent fitness of different developmental stages of Propylaea japonica
Mi Tian, Yi Zhang, Tong-Xian Liu and Shi-Ze Zhang
Pest Management Science
BACKGROUND Repeated extreme high temperature occurs frequently in summer. Propylaea japonica is a predominant predator in South-East Asia and has been considered as a successful natural enemy to control aphids. However, how repeated extreme high temperature affects the fitness of P. japonica remains unclear. This study evaluated the immediate and subsequent fitness of P. japonica when egg, larva, pupa, and adult were exposed to repeated high temperatures (39, 41, or 43 degrees C for 3 h exposure duration per day) during several days. RESULTS The effect of repeated high temperatures on P. japonica fitness was stage-specific: the egg stage was the most sensitive, the larval and pupal stages were moderately resistant and the adult stage was the most resistant to heat. Repeated high temperatures extended the immature developmental time and decreased the sex ratio of eggs treated with these temperatures, compared to control eggs. A temperature of 39 degrees C had no significant effect on the pre-oviposition period, oviposition period, fecundity (except stress pupa), or longevity compared with the control, but negative carry-over effects above 39 degrees C on subsequent stages were found. CONCLUSION Repeated high temperature for consecutive days not only had a significant effect on the immediate survival and developmental time, but also had deleterious effects on the subsequent development and performance of P. japonica. The present study provides valuable information for understanding and utilizing P. japonica to control aphids in challenging environments.