F-box protein MdAMR1L1 regulates ascorbate biosynthesis in apple by modulating GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase
Songya Ma, Huixia Li, Lan Wang, Baiyun Li, Zhengyang Wang, Baiquan Ma, Fengwang Ma and Mingjun Li
Ascorbate (Asc) is an important antioxidant in plants and humans that plays key roles in various physiological processes. Understanding the regulation of Asc content in fruit plants is important for improving plant resiliency and optimizing Asc in food. Here, we found that both the transcript level and protein abundance of Asc Mannose pathway Regulator 1 Like 1 (MdAMR1L1) was negatively associated with Asc levels during the development of apple (Malus x domestica) fruit. The overexpression or silencing of MdAMR1L1 in apple indicated that MdAMR1L1 negatively regulated Asc levels. However, in the leaves of MdAMR1L1-overexpressing apple lines, the transcript levels of the Asc synthesis gene Guanosine diphosphate-mannose pyrophosphorylase MdGMP1 were increased, while its protein levels and enzyme activity were reduced. This occurred because the MdAMR1L1 protein interacted with MdGMP1 and promoted its degradation via the ubiquitination pathway to inhibit Asc synthesis at the post-translational level. MdERF98, an apple ethylene response factor, whose transcription was modulated by Asc level, is directly bound to the promoter of MdGMP1 to promote the transcription of MdGMP1. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of Asc biosynthesis in apples and revealed potential opportunities to improve fruit Asc levels.