Codification and description of growth stages in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) using the extended BBCH scale
Changfei Guan, Qinghui Che, Pingxian Zhang, Jinmeng Huang, Sadaruddin Chachar, Xiaofeng Ruan, Renzi Wang, Yong Yang
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is one of the most important fruit that is grown commercially worldwide including the East Asia and Mediterranean regions, and it has been cultivated for its fruit with high nutritional values. Phenology of fruits has attracted the interest of many breeders, growers, and researchers for accurately schedule timing of horticultural managements, but detailed and specific scale for persimmon, especially for the pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) and androecious persimmons, remain non-available. In this study, we characterized persimmon phenological growth stages in four persimmon cultivars containing two important morphological traits of sexuality and astringency using the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt Chemische Industrie) scale. The principal growth stages of persimmon were divided into the vegetative and reproductive phenology. We first investigated the vegetative phenology, including: bud development stage (0), leaf development stage (1), shoot development stage (3), and senescence and rest stage (9). The consequent reproductive phenology contained the four following stages, inflorescence emergence stage (5), flowering stage (6), fruit development stage (7), and fruit maturity stage (8). To better understand these phenological growth stages, we next provided illustrative photos with codification and description in persimmon. In addition, the phenological records over two growing seasons in the National Field Genebank for Persimmon (NFGP) were used to draw a schematic representation of principal growth stages. Correct identification of phenological stages is of great importance for the characterization and management in persimmon. Thus, this study will provide the dissemination of knowledge of persimmon cultivars among growers and researchers.