Chloroplast envelope ATPase PGA1/AtFtsH12 is required for chloroplast protein accumulation and cytosol-chloroplast protein homeostasis in Arabidopsis
Qinglong Li, Xiaomin Wang, Yang Lei, Yanling Wang, Bilang Li, Xiayan Liu, Lijun An, Fei Yu, Yafei Qi
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The establishment of photosynthetic protein complexes during chloroplast development requires the influx of a large number of chloroplast proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome, which is critical for cytosol and chloroplast protein homeostasis and chloroplast development. However, the mechanisms regulating this process are still not well-understood in higher plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the pale green Arabidopsis pga1-1 mutant, which is defective in chloroplast development and chloroplast protein accumulation. Using genetic and biochemical evidence, we reveal that PGA1 encodes AtFtsH12, a chloroplast envelope-localized protein of the FtsH family proteins. We determined a G703R mutation in the GAD motif of the conserved ATPase domain renders the pga1-1 a viable hypomorphic allele of the essential gene AtFtsH12. In de-etiolation assays, we showed that the accumulation of photosynthetic proteins and the expression of photosynthetic genes were impaired in pga1-1. Using the FNRctp-GFP and pTAC2-GFP reporters, we demonstrated that AtFtsH12 was required for the accumulation of chloroplast proteins in vivo. Interestingly, we identified an increase in expression of the mutant AtFtsH12 gene in pga1-1, suggesting a feedback regulation. Moreover, we found that cytosolic and chloroplast proteostasis responses were triggered in pga1-1. Together, taking advantage of the novel pga1-1 mutant, we demonstrate the function of AtFtsH12 in chloroplast protein homeostasis and chloroplast development.