Fine mapping and distribution analysis of hybrid necrosis genes Ne1 and Ne2 in wheat in China
Min Zhang, Shikai Lv, Yanzhen Wang, Siwen Wang, Chunhuan Chen, Changyou Wang, Yajuan Wang, Hong Zhang and Wanquan Ji
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Key message Flanking markers useful for identifying hybrid necrosis alleles were identified by fine mapping Ne1 and Ne2 and the distribution of the two necrosis genes was investigated in Chinese elite wheat varieties. Hybrid necrosis of wheat is caused by the interaction of two dominant complementary genes Ne1 and Ne2 present separately in normal parents and is regarded as a barrier to gene transfer in wheat breeding. However, the necrosis alleles still occur at a high frequency in modern wheat varieties. In this study, we constructed two high-density genetic maps of Ne1 and Ne2 in winter wheat. In these cultivars, Ne1 was found to be located in a span interval of 0.50 centimorgan (cM) on chromosome 5BL delimited by markers Nwu_5B_4137 and Nwu_5B_5114, while Ne2 co-segregated with markers Lseq102 and TC67744 on 2BS. Statistical analysis confirmed that the dosage effect of Ne1 and Ne2 also existed in moderate and severe hybrid necrosis systems, and the symptoms of necrosis can also be affected by the genetic background. Furthermore, we clarified the discrete distribution and proportion of the Ne1 and Ne2 in the 10 China's agro-ecological production zones. We concluded that 26.2% and 33.2% of the 1364 cultivars (lines) were genotyped with Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 and ne1ne1Ne2Ne2, respectively and introduced modern cultivars should directly affect the frequencies of necrosis genes in modern Chinese cultivars (lines), especially that of Ne2. Taking investigations in spring wheat together, we proposed that hybrid necrosis alleles could positively affect breeding owing to their linked excellent genes such as Lr13. Additionally, based on the pedigrees and hybridization tests, we speculated that the Ne1 and Ne2 in winter wheat may directly originate from wild emmer and introduced cultivars or hexaploid triticale, respectively.