Dissecting the genetic basis of yield-related traits is pivotal for improvement of wheat yield potential. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population genotyped by SNP markers was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to yield-related traits in ten environments. A total of 102 QTL were detected, including 33 environmentally stable QTL and 69 putative QTL. Among them, Qmt.nwafu.3D was identified as a pleiotropic QTL in the physical interval of 149.77-154.11 Mb containing a potential candidate gene TaGS5-3D. An SNP (T > C) was detected in its ninth intron, and TaGS5-3D-C was validated as a superior allele associated with larger grains using a CAPS marker. Interestingly, we found that TaGS5-3D-C was closely related to significantly up-regulated expression of intron-retained transcript (TaGS5-3D-PD34.1), while TaGS5-3D-T was related to dominant expression of normal splicing transcript (TaGS5-3D-MY47.1). Our results indicated that alternative splicing associated with the SNP T/C could be involved in the regulation of grain-related traits, laying a foundation for the functional analysis of TaGS5-3D and its greater potential application in high-yield wheat breeding.